The Terror

The Terror by Dan Simmons

Dan Simmons’s The Terror introduces the reader to a nightmare—a deadly combination of horror, fiction, and (most unsettlingly) reality. In 1845, 148 men led by Captain Sir John Franklin departed England on two ships, the Terror and the Erebus, in search of the Northwest Passage.

The expedition was a complete failure.

Navigating treacherous ice floes in the far north, dealing with months of endless winter and endless night, and limited supplies all seem to spell a recipe for disaster on their own. But in The Terror, Simmons wonders, what if there was something even worse than that?

What if there was something out there in the infinite darkness?

Meticulously researched, The Terror brings both the historical reality of the expedition and the terrifying fiction to life. Chapters alternate between the perspectives of major (and minor) players—including Captain Sir John Franklin himself—and fluctuate back and forth through time. The first chapter, narrated by Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier, captain of the Terror, opens by pinpointing their location on their voyage and subsequently, our location in the story:

Lat. 70°-05’ N., Long. 98°-23’ W.
October, 1847

Beginning with these unassailable facts, Simmons brings a sense of authenticity to the novel. He even provides maps tracing the ships’ unfortunate route in the front matter so we can follow along on the journey, even peek ahead if we so choose. But in this very same chapter, Simmons yanks the rug from under us when he has Captain Crozier inspect some damage to the ship’s reinforced hull:

Something, Francis Crozier suspects, has dug down through these tons of snow and tunneled through the iron-hard slabs of ice to get at the hull of the ship. . . . And now it’s banging and clawing to get in.

Crozier knows that there’s only one thing on earth with that much power, deadly persistence, and malevolent intelligence. The monster on the ice is trying to get at them from below.

Clearly, this is not going to be a simple case of man vs. the elements.

I think what surprised me most was getting an introduction to this seemingly supernatural element so early on in the story. Numerous times Simmons would build suspense throughout a chapter until my heart was racing and my hand rose to my mouth in shock only for me to realize there were still hundreds of pages left—we weren’t even close to the climax.

I wondered how on earth he could keep this momentum going for 700+ pages. Where could the story be going? But I was never disappointed. Through an expertly woven combination of conflicts (man v. nature, man v. man, man v. monster), I was never bored. I was shocked that the book just didn’t drag. It wasn’t exactly a nonstop thrill ride, but it ebbed and flowed, pulling the reader ever closer to the inevitable conclusion—whatever that seemed to be at the time.

But The Terror wasn’t without its flaws, either. The book is a white man’s world with little room for anyone else. I’ll be the first to admit that this clearly seems due to Simmons’s desire for historical accuracy and to keep all perspectives among those aboard the ships. Still, the women and people of color that are depicted don’t get the fairest shake.

An old flame of Crozier’s, Sophia Cracroft, isn’t condemned for her role in Crozier’s past, but she certainly isn’t sympathetic or fully fleshed out, either. She plays but a small part, though, as she can only appear in the story through Crozier’s memories, and who knows how much of what he remembers can be trusted.

Lady Silence, however, features a bit more prominently and represents the only real major female presence as well as the only non-white character. She’s Inuit, and though Simmons has clearly done his research on their early 20th-century culture, it’s not quite enough to save her either from tokenism or mystical stereotyping. Chapters from Silence’s perspective really could have helped here, even if they were rare. I’m not sure I’d call her portrayal offensive, but I’m sad to admit I did ultimately find it disappointing. Simmons is clearly a talented writer—it’s just a shame he didn’t put any of those skills to use for this character.

But neither of these issues detract from the overall work. The Terror is a solid piece of historical fiction as well as horror. It is perfectly suited to short wintery days and long icy nights. I went in to the book knowing little of the real Franklin Expedition so history buffs may have a slightly different experience, but to them I say, suspend your disbelief. Just let yourself fall into the nightmare Simmons weaves. I think it might be my favorite horror novel I’ve ever read. And I think my favorite part about it is that when you boil it down, it’s less about the horrors outside your door and more about the horrors within.

House of Leaves

House of Leaves

What can I make of House of Leaves? Where to start? How to say enough without saying too much?

It’s unlike anything I’ve ever read before, and from the moment I picked it up, all I wanted to do was talk about it with someone, anyone. But everywhere I looked, even among my most literary friends, I couldn’t find a single person who’d read it. The compulsion to share this thing I’d discovered was overwhelming, but despite all that, I still have an almost impossible time putting my feelings into words.

At it’s core, most call House of Leaves a horror story. Some call it a love story. I call it a bit of both along with something else entirely. Something unnameable.

Before even the introduction, instead of a dedication the book begins with a warning:

“This is not for you.”

In this way, the book pulls us in with one hand and pushes us away with the other. If it’s not for us, then who is it for, we wonder?

There’s only one way to find out.

The book centers on three main characters: Zampanò, Johnny Truant, and Will Navidson.

Elderly, blind Zampanò spent his life writing a scholarly analysis of a 1993 documentary called The Navidson Record. In the documentary, Will Navidson realizes that the inside of his house is bigger than the outside and decides to tape his increasingly terrifying exploration of the anomaly. After Zampanò’s death, Johnny Truant discovers the pieces of the manuscript and becomes obsessed with completing Zampanò’s work, adding footnotes for clarity or, more frequently, to share his thoughts and discuss his life since discovering it. And if that weren’t enough, Johnny insists that The Navidson Record doesn’t even exist.

The process of reading this book was quite possibly the single most challenging and rewarding experience with a book I’ve ever had. Danielewski experiments not just with narrative construction, but with the very page layout itself. Some changes seem to be for coherence, while others are part of a masterful attempt to manipulate the reader’s emotions.

Example of the text’s shifting layout style

As the text jumped around the page and the footnotes became more entangled, I was struggling to keep up. I would read and re-read portions, searching for my place, feeling lost and bogged down.

But none of that was without purpose. Ultimately, Danielewski (or should I say Zampanò?) led me to the answer:

“In order to escape then, we have to remember we cannot ponder all paths but must decode only those necessary to get out. We must be quick and anything but exhaustive. Yet as Seneca warned in his Epistule morales 44, going too fast also incurs certain risks:

This is what happens when you hurry through a maze: the faster you go, the worse you are entangled.

. . .

Therefore anyone lost within must recognize that no one, not even a god or an Other, comprehends the entire maze and so therefore can never offer a definitive answer.”

It’s not meant to be possible to follow every thread in House of Leaves on a first reading. You can only go where it’s possible for you to follow. Some passages may feel inscrutable, others obvious.

That confusion and frustration? That’s how Danielewski wanted me to feel. I was just as lost as the characters, just as uncertain. My empathy for Will and Johnny was being thrust upon me. I had no choice because it was as if we were on this journey together.

More than this though, I felt that in reading House of Leaves, I was seeing for the first time what a writer could do with text, how differently a story could be told. It was thrilling and suspenseful and above all else emotional.

Though it certainly appeals to a specific kind of reader, I can’t recommend House of Leaves enough. It’s rocketed straight to the top of my list of my favorite books of all time. It’s something incredibly special that deserves all the energy it takes to get through it.

Hell House

I can’t say I love horror, but I love the idea of horror. Every autumn when the air turns crisp, the trees burst with color, and I feel Halloween approaching, I can’t help but be sucked in by the spirit of the season.

I say yes to every haunted house and every gory film, despite almost immediately regretting my decision. I’ll leave the haunted house in tears and refuse to sleep with the lights off and when someone asks me tomorrow if I want to read the terrifying ghost story they just found, of course I’ll say yes.

I’m a glutton for punishment, in that sense.

When I picked up Richard Matheson’s 1971 novel, Hell House I was certain I’d regret it in just the same way. I loved I Am Legend and was happy with my previous foray into the horror genre (King’s The Shining) so I was sure I was in good hands.

Imagine my absolute and overwhelming disappointment then when I discovered that the only thing scary about Hell House was the thought that anyone could love this book.

The novel opens on December 20, 1970. Parapsychologist and physicist Lionel Barrett gets the chance of a lifetime with an opportunity to investigate the world’s most haunted house, Hell House. Eccentric millionaire Rolf Rudolph Deutsch reaches out to Lionel and insists that if he can give him definitive proof of an after-life or lack-thereof, he’ll pay him the tidy sum of $100,000. Lionel can’t resist and arrives on the scene with his wife, Edith, and two other of Deutsch’s recruits: spiritualist Florence Tanner and physical medium (and survivor of a previous Hell House haunting), Benjamin Fischer. The four are to spend one week in the home, but they’re not there more than a couple hours before things start to go horribly wrong.

Already the story faces some predictability of premise. Haunted house? Check. Eccentric millionaire? Check. Ghost with a deviant and violent past? Check. Group of strangers isolated in the countryside? Check and check.

I waited for Matheson’s twist, his variation on a theme, or for the sharp, clear writing of I Am Legend to shine through, but it never came. When Matheson’s writing isn’t coasting by as passable, it’s veering into ham-fistedness.

He’s never quite able to fully realize his characters, and they drift through the novel half-formed, often relying on virulent caricature to complete them. Sexism runs rampant, with Florence and Edith playing little more than overly sensitive, emotional women in need of saving. The men’s failings are hypermasculine, with Lionel suffering from impotency and overabundant pride and Fischer painted as weak, paralyzed by inaction. In these characterizations, the writing is at it’s poorest as we’re treated to pathetic descriptions like,

“Edith closed her eyes and drew her legs up. She couldn’t face that again. The worst
haunted house in the world threatened her less than being alone.”

Oh, brother. Another depiction of a woman terrified of loneliness, clinging to her husband, with no other real personality traits. This is the best you could do, Matheson? Give me a break.

We even see Matheson veer into straightforward racism, with his depiction of Florence’s Native American spirit guide:

“Florence’s chair made a creaking noise. ‘Me Red Cloud,’ she said in a sonorous voice. Her face, in the darkness, was stonelike, her expression imperious. ‘Me Red Cloud,’ she repeated. . . . ‘Red Cloud Tanner woman guide. Guide second medium on this side. Talk with Tanner woman. Bring other spirits to her.’”

To be fair, Matheson does call out Red Cloud’s voice as a “poor impersonation,” but that doesn’t happen until the very end and even so, the decision to even have the spirit guide be Native American is a pathetic stereotype in and of itself. Coupling that with such a lazy and offensive impersonation makes absolutely no sense. None of it affects the story or communicates a point. It just seems to be a convenient way to set Florence apart and as such, it’s pretty deplorable.

As for the scares, they rely heavily on shock over atmosphere or emotion, and the shock relies almost entirely on sexuality and sexual violence. Hell House’s former residents were those who gave in to bacchanalian desires, and the home was the site of everything from rape and violent orgies to murder and torture.

But this isn’t any more interesting or well crafted than schlocky slasher flicks like My Bloody Valentine or I Know What You Did Last Summer. These scares are cheap and seem to largely be rooted in the fear of women’s sexual desires and repulsion of homosexuality. In fact, Matheson writes about women’s desires as if the only thing that could cause them is demonic possession.

In The Shining, Kubrick’s interpretation in particular, the haunted Overlook Hotel contains something truly menacing: a father’s worst fears and worst self brought to the surface. A recovering alcoholic who has hit his child is transformed by malevolent forces into a raging, homicidal monster. Infused in the depiction is King’s personal, first-hand experience with alcoholism, and it shows. His characters feel real. The terror he creates rings more true. King is far from perfect when it comes to depictions of women and people of color, but he’s already leagues ahead of Matheson’s Hell House here.

Ultimately, Hell House falls miserably short. It’s no match to King’s Shining on any level and its disgusting anti-feminist, anti-sex, homophobic principles should strip it of its spot on literature’s list of scariest tales. Forget this one and turn to I Am Legend instead.